Smart Electronic Systems
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An untapped opportunity in the realm of communication and information technology lies in tiny smart devices that will soon be embedded in almost everything including paper and packaging, the human body, and various everyday objects. These smart electronics may sense their environments, process information, communicate by wireless means, and form ad hoc multihop spontaneous networks, giving rise to a worldwide-distributed system that is several orders of magnitude larger than today’s Internet.This so-called “Internet-of-Things (IoT)” will enable a wide range of applications and provide new business opportunities in many areas including medical and healthcare, safety and security, logistics and inventory management, manufacturing, and automation. The electronics as basic devices disappear or are cleverly hidden, but the functionalities are available in a ubiquitous fashion.
To realize the vision of IoT toward a truly connected smart world, there are three key enablers for such smart electronics: (i) extremely low-power or even self-powered integrated circuits based on advanced complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for computing, communication, sensing, and perception; (ii) flexible and large area electronics (LAEs) for multifunctionality and interfacing to the analogy world; and (iii) hybrid system integration technologies that integrate conventional silicon-based CMOS chips with printed materials/devices on flexible substrates. As silicon chip is inexpensive as measured by per function whereas printed electronics is cheap as measured by per area, we believe that the hybrid integrated solution of silicon chips and LAEs will be the most promising solution for future smart electronics systems.This book covers various aspects of smart electronic systems and summarizes our recent research from materials, devices, systems to applications, with special focus on LAEs using printing techniques and integration technologies for hybrid flexible systems.